In general, we adhere to the style-sheet principles laid down by the American Psychological Association (APA) (for details on the 6th edition, please consult: In preparing your paper, please pay close attention to the following:


Please, try to make your paper as easy to read as possible. Use short headings and subheadings to make the structure of your article clear. If appropriate, illustrate your article with examples, diagrams, tables, etc. If you introduce a term which you think may not be familiar to some readers, give a short definition (if necessary, in a note at the end of the article).

The use of ‘he’ and ‘his’, ‘she’ and ‘her’ is acceptable only when a definite person is referred to. In all other cases, please use ‘he or she’, ‘his or her’; ‘they’ or ‘them’; or plural nouns, e.g. ‘students’, ‘teachers’, etc.

Title, abstract and keywords

Please give your article a clear and informative title of an average of 100 characters (without spaces). Begin your article with an abstract of between 150 to 200 words summarizing your main points. The abstract should provide a brief summary of the paper and its fundamental findings and conclusions. Do not include references or notes in the abstract. The abstract should appear before the main text of the paper and after the title and author statements. Also provide a brief list of keywords, right after the abstract. When your article is published, the title, abstract and keywords will be published in the e-journal’s online index, and it is important that users of this index are able to locate your article among others dealing with related themes.


Articles should be original and should not include libellous or defamatory material.

All texts submitted by e-mail attachment should also have page numbers.

For general Internet writing style and usage, authors are encouraged to consult Wired Style: Principles of English Usage in the Digital Age, edited by C. Hale, Constance Hale and J. Scanlon (New York: Broadway Books, 1999). For example, the World Wide Web can be referred to as 'the Web' or 'the World Wide Web' but not 'the web'. The Internet should be called 'the Internet', not 'the internet' or 'the net'. Electronic mail can be referred to as 'e-mail' or 'E-mail' but not 'email' or 'Email'.

Acronyms should be explained in their first use, as in ‘English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)’, allowing the use of ‘ELF’ later in the manuscript. Not all readers will be acquainted with even the most basic acronyms. Explain each and every first occurrence of these acronyms so readers will not become lost in an alphabet sea. Some (but not all!) of the most common acronyms used in the TESOL field can be found at

Please use a basic, widely available font like Times New Roman, 12 point only.

Do not justify or break words at the right margin.

Additional data and complicated or long tables and figures should be placed in consecutively numbered appendices at the end of the manuscript.

Notes in the manuscript should be consecutively numbered, and collected at the end of the paper, after the Conclusion and before the References.

Headings and subheadings

Type each heading and subheading on a separate line, ranged left. Underline main headings, but do not underline subheadings. Please use a numbering or lettering system for headings and avoid excessive subdivision, as in ‘’, for instance.

References in the text

Citations in the course of the manuscript should appear in the following ways:

  • The last name of the author of work cited should appear in the paper, followed by the year of publication of the book, paper, report, or document, as in ‘(Ellis, 2006)’. If there is reference to authors with the same surname, initials should be used to differentiate between the different authors, as in ‘(N. Ellis, 2007; R. Ellis, 2008)’. The ordering of references should be strictly alphabetical. Reference to works by the same author with the same date should be marked as ‘Ellis 2003a, 2003b’.
  • For those references containing more than one author, list the authors in the order of their appearance in the original publication, followed by the date of publication, as in ‘(Webb and Rodgers, 2009)’.
  • If a reference contains three or more authors, the citation should appear as ‘(Stahl et al., 1991)’.
  • Reference to publications in press, i.e., those documents accepted for publication but not yet published, cite as ‘(Rivers, in press)’.
  • For direct quotations, use ‘(Widdowson, 1994, p. 382)’.
  • Multiple citations should appear in alphabetical order, for example, ‘(Bahns & Eldaw, 1993; Howarth, 1998; Lewis, 2000; McCarthy & O’Dell, 2005; Nesselhauf, 2003)’.
  • A citation can occasionally refer to text written by one author embedded in the text of a book or paper written by another author, for example, ‘(Shi, 2004, in Yu, 2009)’. It is important, however, that the full publication details of the embedded work (in this example, ‘Shi, 2004’) also appear in the final list of references.

Note: All citations in the course of the paper should be presented in full in the References section. Papers listed in the References section which are not cited in the course of the paper will be removed. Citations to papers not found in References will be removed from the contents of the paper. Also, please avoid unmotivated referencing.

If the paper includes Greek references, they should be listed together with the non-Greek ones, in the following order: A, B, C/Γ, D/Δ, E, Z, F, G, H, Θ, Ι, J, K, L/Λ, M, N, Ξ, O, P/Π, Q, R/Ρ, S/Σ, T, Y, Φ, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Ψ, Ω.

Please remember not to over-reference your article either in relation to specific points you make in the text, or overall.


Short notes can appear in the text within brackets while longer ones should be collected together at the end of the article. Please number your (end)notes consecutively, giving clear superscript numbers in the appropriate places.


Please do not include acknowledgements to colleagues or students who may have helped you during the writing of the article. It is often difficult to find space to credit all those who might be credited – it is the journal’s policy to leave it to authors to express their thanks personally.

List of references

Please give full bibliographical details of references and list them in alphabetical order of author, following the style of the examples given below (including indentation):

o book:
Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

o article in journal:
Norton, B. (1997). ‘Language, identity and the ownership of English.’ TESOL Quarterly, 31/4: 409-29.

o chapter in edited collection when the collection appears only once in the list of references:
Hamberger, H. (2004). ‘Code-switching patterns and developing discourse competence in the L2 classroom’. In D. Boxer & A. D. Cohen (Eds), Studying speaking to inform second language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 115-146.

o the list of references contains two or more occurrences of an edited collection:
Rajagopalan, K. (2005). ‘Non-native speaker teachers of English and their anxieties: ingredients for an experiment in action research.’ In E. Llurda (Ed.), 283-303.
Benke, E. & Medgyes, P. (2005). ‘Differences in teaching behavior between native and non-native speaker teachers: as seen by the learners.’ In E. Llurda (Ed.), 195-215.
Llurda, E. (Ed.) (2005). Non-native language teachers. perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession. New York: Springer.

o two or more publications by an author in the same year:
Robinson, P. (2001a). ‘Task complexity, task difficulty, and task production: exploring interactions in a componential framework.’ Applied Linguistics, 221: 27-55.
Robinson, P. (2001b). ‘Task complexity, cognitive resources, and syllabus design: a triadic framework for examining task influences on SLA.’ In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 287-318.

o unpublished conference papers:
Ramphal, S. (1996). ‘World language: opportunities, challenges, responsibilities.’ Paper presented at the World Members’ Conference of the English-Speaking Union, Harrogate, UK.

o unpublished PhD theses, M.Ed. dissertations, projects, etc.:
Littlejohn, A. (1992). ‘Why are ELT materials the way they are?’ Unpublished PhD thesis, Lancaster University.

o Papers in electronic journals (on the World Wide Web):
Wilkinson, L. R. (2008). ‘ESL academic writing and plagiarism.’ The Internet TESL Journal, 14/7 (July), at, accessed 10 August 2009.

o World Wide Web sites:
British National Corpus Web, at, accessed 15 May 2009.


Please indicate clearly the holders of copyright in any illustrations, extracts, diagrams, etc., which accompany your contribution.


In the case of multiple authorship, names will appear in the order in which contributors give them, even if that order is not alphabetical.

Biographical note

Please include a short biographical note (of about 50 words)

Please send your paper as an email attachment to the following email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.